Earliest Coins


Here's a selected bibliography relating to early Western coinage, in reverse chronological order, with the references I found most used preceded with three asterisks.

*** R. Wallace, "KUKALIM, WALWET, and the Artemission Deposit: Problems in Early Anatolian Electrum Coinage," Agoranomia: Studies in Money and Exchange Presented to John H. Kroll, American Numismatic Society, New York, 2006, pp. 37-48.

*** M. Mitchiner, Ancient Trade and Early Coinage, Hawkins Publications, London, 2004.

R. Seaford, Money and the Early Greek Mind: Homer, Philosophy, Tragedy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.

D. Schaps, The Invention of Coinage and the Monetization of Ancient Greece, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2004.

*** K. Konuk, From Kroisos to Karia, Graphis Matbaa, Istanbul, 2003.

C. Thompson, "Sealed Silver in Iron Age Cisjordan and the 'Invention of Coinage'," Oxford Journal of Archeology 22, 1 (2003), pp. 67-107.

M. Weissl, "Grundzüge der Bau- und Schichtenfolge im Artemision von Ephesos," Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts in Wien, Band 71 (2002), pp. 313-346.

*** P. Keyser and D. Clark, "Analyzing and Interpreting the Metallurgy of Early Electrum Coins," Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece, American Numismatic Society, New York, 2001, pp. 105-126.

*** R. Wallace, "Remarks on the Value and Standards of Early Electrum Coins," Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece, American Numismatic Society, New York, 2001, pp. 127-134.

G. Le Rider, La naissance de la monnaie: Practiques monétaires de l'Orient ancient, Presses universitaires de France, Paris, 2001.

Kim, H. "Archaic Coinage as Evidence for the Use of Money," Money and Its Uses in the Ancient Greek World, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001, pp. 7-21.

*** A. Ramage and P. Craddock, King Croesus' Gold: Excavations at Sardis and the History of Gold Refining, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

*** R. Mundell,
"The Birth of Coinage," scheduled to be published in the Zagreb Journal of Economics, 1999.

*** M. Kroll, K. Hyne, N. Meeks, P. Craddock, "Analyses of the Lydian Electrum, Gold and Silver Coinages," Metallurgy in Numismatics Vol. 4 (1998), pp. 526-538.

J. Spier, "Notes on Early Electrum Coinage and a Die-Linked Issue from Lydia," Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price, Spink & Son, London, 1998, pp. 327-334, with plates.

C. Howgego, Ancient History From Coins, Routledge, London, 1995.

G. Davies, A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1994.

*** W. Daehn, "Evidence for Invention of Coinage: Artemision Hoard Launches Debate," Celator, Jan. 1992, pp. 18-23.

*** S. Karwiese, "The Artemisium Coin Hoard and the First Coins of Ephesus," Revue belge de numismatique 137 (1991), pp. 1-28.

C. Howgego, "Why Did Ancient States Strike Coins?" Numismatic Chronicle 150 (1990), pp. 1-25.

*** R. Wallace, "On the Production and Exchange of Early Anatolian Electrum Coinages," L'or Perse et l'Histoire Grecque, Table ronde CNRS, Bordeaux, 1989, pp. 87-95.

*** R. Wallace, "The Origin of Electrum Coinages," American Journal of Archeology 91 (1987), pp. 385-397.

M. Vickers, "Early Greek Coinage, A Reassessment," Numismatic Chronicle 145 (1985), pp. 1-44.

R. Holloway, "The Date of the First Greek Coins: Some Arguments from Style and Hoards," Belgian Review of Numismatics 130 (1984), pp. 5-18.

*** M. Price, "Thoughts on the Beginnings of Coinage," Studies in Numismatic Method, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 1-10.

D. Kagan, "The Dates of the Earliest Coins," American Journal of Archeology 86 (1982), pp. 343-360.

J. Healy, "Greek White Gold and Electrum Coin Series," Metallurgy in Numismatics Vol. 1 (1980), pp. 194-215.

E. Pászthory, "Investigation of the Early Electrum Coins of the Alyattes Type," Metallurgy in Numismatics Vol. 1, Metcalf and Oddy, Royal Numismatic Society, London, 1980, pp. 151-156, with plates.

*** L. Weidauer, Probleme der frühen Elektronprägung
, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1975 (English translation by Dane Kurth available via email for $20 through weidauerproject@gmail.com).

M. Balmuth, "Remarks on the Appearance of the Earliest Coins,"
Studies Presented to George M. A. Hanfmann, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1971, pp. 1-7.

*** J. Pedley,
Sardis in the Age of Croesus, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968.

A. Bellinger, "Electrum Coins from Gordion,"
Essays in Greek Coinage: Presented to Stanley Robinson, C. Kraay and G. Jenkins, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968, pp. 10-15.

*** C. Kraay, "Hoards, Small Change, and the Origin of Coinage," Journal of the Hellenistic Studies 84 (1964), pp. 76-91.

*** S. Bolin,
State and Currency in the Roman Empire to 300 A.D., Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm, 1958, pp. 15-37.

R.M. Cook, "Speculations on the Origin of Coinage," Historia 7 (1958), pp. 257-262.

*** E. Robinson, "The Coins from the Ephesian Artemision Reconsidered," Journal of Hellenic Studies 71 (1951), pp. 156-167, with plate.

C. Seltman,
Greek Coins: A History of Metallic Currency and Coinage Down to the Fall of the Hellenistic Kingdoms, Methuen & Co., London, 1933.








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